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Science: Technology: Cryotechnology: Absolute_Zero

BEC: Bose Einstein Condensation of Sodium
A summary of the NIST project.

BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation) Homepage
"A new form of matter at the coldest temperatures in the universe." Simplified, surprisingly clear explanation. Includes cartoon illustrations.

Below Absolute Zero -- What Does Negative Temperature Mean?
Can you really make a system which has a temperature below absolute zero? From the Usenet Physics FAQ.

Computer Simulation of laser cooling and trapping
Download page for free copies of several "Cool Simulations."

NIST - Atomic Physics Division - Laser Cooling and Trapping Group
This department of the National Institute of Standards and Technology studies the physics of laser cooling, electromagnetic trapping, and other radiative manipulation of neutral atoms and dielectric particles. Home of 1997 Nobel Prize winner William D. Phillips, whose team has cooled atoms to less than a millionth of a degree above absolute zero.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
This includes the press release of the Nobel Committee for the prize given to Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William D. Phillips, for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. For those wanting more scientific details, be sure to click the link for "Additional background material" under "Further Reading."

Research groups involved in atom trapping and cooling
A detailed links list of about 50 research groups around the world, with an immense list of subject links, as well. From the Laser Physics Group at Umeå University, Sweden.

Steven Chu, former Bell Labs researcher, wins 1997 Nobel in physics
Using lasers to trap and cool molecules for study. Nobel Prize for Chu, Phillips, and Cohen-Tannoudji.

USC Physics & Astronomy: Physics 151 Lab Manual
Click on: "Experiment X: Ideal Gas Law and the Absolute Zero of Temperature." Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader. The experiment uses liquid nitrogen.

What is absolute zero?
An answer from the Lansing State Journal in Michigan, January 29, 1992.

Cornell and Wieman Share 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics
Press releases from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and explanations of the work on Bose-Einstein condensates which won the Nobel Prize. (October 9, 2001)


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