Science: Physics: Relativity: Special_Relativity

Beneath the Foundations of Spacetime
Special relativity can be derived with moving rulers in such a way that the astonishing connection between space and time can be clearly understood. [PDF]

Breaking in the 4-vectors: the four-dimensional movement in gravitation, 1905–1910
The four-dimensional language of physics originated with Poincaré, Minkowski, and Sommerfeld in their study of the geometric and symbolic expressions of gravitational action. 57 pages. [PDF]

C-Ship
A short overview of special relativity, filled with relativistic ray traced images. Explains relativistic effects using a theoretical spaceship.

Einstein Light
A multimedia tutorial on Special Relativity. The introductory level takes 10 minutes, but has links to over 40 explanatory pages giving greater depth and breadth.

Einstein, Nordström and the Early Demise of Scalar, Lorentz Covariant Theories of Gravitation
Conventional thinking says that all Lorentz covariant gravitation theories are unacceptable. 74 pages. [PDF]

E=mc²
An article from the Wikipedia encyclopedia.

E=mc² before Einstein
According to University of Perugia historian of mathematics Umberto Bartocci, Olinto De Pretto published the famous formula E=mc² two years before Albert Einstein in a paper titled "Ipotesi dell’etere nella vita dell’universo" (Hypothesis of the Essence of the Universe).

E=mc² is Not Einstein's Discovery
The mathematician Robert A. Herrmann presents a brief history on the mass-energy equation E=mc² to challenge the myth that Einstein was the first to understand that radiant energy has mass. [PDF]

E=mc² was an Italian's idea
The University of Perugia historian of mathematics Umberto Bartocci claims that a Swiss Italian named Michele Besso alerted Einstein to the writings of Olinto De Pretto who then published Pretto's mass-energy equation without giving credit.

Generalized relativistic velocity addition with spacetime algebra
The general problem of relativistic addition of velocities – and the successive application of noncollinear Lorentz boosts – is addressed. [PDF]

Henri Poincaré: A Decisive Contribution to Special Relativity
Henri Poincaré set up all the basic concepts of special relativity several years before Einstein published On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies (Annalen der Physik vol XVII 1905 p. 891-921). This is the short version of the story.

Henri Poincaré and Relativity Theory
Who created the theory of relativity? This reference identifies the substantial contributions made to relativity theory by the mathematician Henri Poincaré. 254 pages. [PDF]

How Did Einstein Discover Special Relativity?
Dr. John Stachel speculates on how Einstein arrived at SRT. Dr. Stachel is Professor of Physics Emeritus and Director of the Center of Einstein Studies at Boston University.

How Do You Add Velocities in Special Relativity?
Here is the formula for adding velocities in special relativity when motion occurs in a single direction.

How Stuff Works: Special Relativity
The major principles of special relativity (SR) are discussed in an accessible way, via 5 segments, to help you understand the lingo and theories involved.

Imaginary in all directions
There is a preferred algebra of quaternions and complex numbers that is ideally suited to express the equations of special relativity and classical electrodynamics. [PDF]

Is Travel Faster Than Light Possible?
Individual photons, when tunneling through a quantum barrier, can apparently travel faster than light.

Jim Doyle's Special Relativity Pages
A growing collection of pages on special relativity, including Special Relativity in under 15 Minutes!

Lorentz Contraction and Accelerated Systems
Lorentz contraction in systems undergoing constant proper acceleration is proven to be completely self-consistent in the context of special relativity. [PDF]

Michelson, FitzGerald and Lorentz: the origins of relativity revisited
It is argued that the beginning of relativity theory occurred in early 1889, when G. F. FitzGerald wrote a letter to Oliver Heaviside concerning a result the latter had just obtained from Maxwell's equations. [PDF]

Minkowski, Mathematicians, and the Mathematical Theory of Relativity
Minkowski claimed scientific priority for a great, new, geometric theory of relativity at the Cologne lecture of 1908, based largely on the work of Poincaré. Poincaré was purposely excluded from the meeting. 42 pages. [PDF]

The Mystery of the Einstein–Poincare´ Connection
There are striking similarities between the theories propounded in 1905 by Albert Einstein and Henri Poincare´. [PDF]

A Note on Relativity before Einstein
The first presentation of the Lorentz transformations, including the crucial time dilation, belongs to Larmor (c. 1897). [PDF]

Nothing but Relativity
There are many ways to derive the Lorentz transformation without invoking Einstein's constancy of light postulate. The path preferred in this paper restates a simple, established approach. [PDF]

Poincaré and the Special Theory of Relativity
It took many great minds to finally attain the point of view that is now called ‘the special theory of relativity’. [PDF]

Quaternions in University-Level Physics Considering Special Relativity
The quaternions are an expansion of complex numbers and show close relations to numerous physically fundamental concepts (e.g. Pauli Matrices). [PDF]

Relatively Simple
Special Relativity made Relatively Simple offers information and experiments about special relativity.

Relativistic contraction
Relativists consider it a very important exercise to have students decide how to measure the length of a rapidly moving object.

Relativistic force transformation
Formulas relating one and the same force in two inertial frames of reference are derived directly from the Lorentz transformation of space and time coordinates. [PDF]

Relativistic Kinematics
This is how special relativity is taught by Dr. David Morin at Harvard University. 72 pages. [PDF]

Relativity in its Historical Context
The discovery of special relativity was inevitable, given the momentous discoveries that preceded it.

Relativity Tutorial
An introduction to relativity using space-time diagrams.

The Rise of Special Relativity: Henri Poincaré’s Works before Einstein
Enrico Giannetto argues from a new historical analysis of Poincaré's and Einstein's papers that Poincaré must be considered the actual creator of special relativity. 37 pages. [PDF]

Santa at Nearly the Speed of Light
An estimate of the speed and distances covered by Santa Claus on Christmas night. The physics is unassailable. The article is hosted on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory website.

Space Measurements on a Rotating Platform
The age-old puzzling problem of Lorentz contraction on a rotating platform, i.e., Ehrenfest's paradox, is explained in its proper mathematical context. [PDF]

Special Relativity
A unit for an online relativity textbook explaining special relativistic mathematical physics.

Special Relativity
A brief overview of the theory of special relativity, and how it pertains to particles at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator)

Special Relativity
Tutorial explains about the postulates, paradox, simulaneity, time dilation, Lorentz transformation constructions, spacetime wheel, and the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction. Page includes some animated illustrations.

Special Relativity
This is chapter two of Christoph Schiller's 1000 page walk through the whole of physics, from classical mechanics to relativity, electrodynamics, thermodynamics, quantum theory, nuclear physics and unification. 61 pages. [PDF]

Special Relativity and Maxwell Equations
A self-contained summary of the theory of special relativity is given, which provides the frame for classical electrodynamics. 26 pages. [PDF]

Special relativity article
From the free encyclopedia Wikipedia.

Special relativity lecture notes
A standard introduction to special relativity where explanations are based on pictures called spacetime diagrams.

Special Relativity simulator
Warp is a program that illustrates the appearance of fast moving objects due to special relativity.

Student understanding of time in special relativity
A report on the ineffectiveness of standard university instruction in Einstein's concept of time by Rachel E. Scherr, Peter S. Shaffer, and Stamatis Vokos. 22 pages. [PDF]

Synchronization Gauges and the Principles of Special Relativity
Synchronization functions set the mathematical clocks represented by the Lorentz transformation and resetting these clocks mathematically only produces a theory equivalent to special relativity in predicting empirical facts. 57 pages. [PDF]

Time Dilation
The gamma factor and time dilation can be derived using a very simple clock.

The Twin Paradox in a Spatially Closed and Bounded Universe
Spatially compact spacetimes break global Lorentz invariance and define absolute inertial frames of reference.

University Lectures on Special Relativity
Lecture notes on Special Relativity, prepared by J. D. Cresser, Department of Physics, Macquarie University. 44 pages. [PDF]

Why No 'New Einstein'?
Followers of large well-supported research programs have lots of powerful senior scientists to promote their careers. People with the uncanny ability to ask new questions or recognize unexamined assumptions are often underappreciated. [PDF]